Mayonnaise and sauces based on it can be produced in at least 3 ways, the technology of which differs, first of all, in temperature conditions. Based on this, the so-called: “hot” or “semi-hot” method, “cold” method and mixed (“coolie”), when in the production of mayonnaise with a fat content of less than 70%, it is necessary to prepare a solution of starch with water during heat treatment.
Mayonnaise is a common and simple sauce that includes ingredients such as water, salt, sugar, mustard, skimmed milk powder, egg yolk, oil, vinegar (or lemon juice). According to one version, it got its typical name from the name of a French sauce similar in structure and color with a similar name. Mayonnaise in many countries can only be called a product that contains a high fat content (about 80%), products with a low oil content are classified as dressings.
In mayonnaise production technology, it is important not only to obtain a typical taste of the product, but also to achieve a typical structure, color and stable shape.
Unfortunately, homemade mayonnaise according to the classic recipe spoils very quickly; in mass production, it is necessary to ensure a long shelf life. Therefore, in mass production, preservatives are almost always used. The natural preservative used in the mayonnaise recipe is acetic acid, which fights the mass reproduction of bacteria in the product, but, most often, preservatives such as sodium benzoate (E211) or potassium sorbate (E202) will be indicated on the label.
The division of production technologies into 3 methods is associated with the mayonnaise recipe.
In the production of 70-80% fat mayonnaise, a cold method can be used, when all components are mixed and homogenized until a stable emulsion is obtained at a temperature of 25-30 degrees, without the need for thermal preparation and processing. Manufacturers attribute the high acid content in the product to the disadvantages of this technology.
The hot method is most often used in the production of mayonnaise with a fat content of 65% or less. It would be correct to call it the semi-hot method, since the introduction of egg whites can be introduced at a maximum temperature of 65 degrees, otherwise they lose their stabilizing function. Therefore, a pasteurized mixture of water, sugar, salt, mustard and milk powder must first be cooled from 95-80 to 55-65 degrees. And only after that add egg powder, and oil only after cooling the mixture to a temperature of 30 degrees approximately. Stabilizers and thickeners are also introduced into the cooled mixture. To obtain the required consistency, modified starches can be added, and to retain it, substances such as galactomannan polysaccharide - guar gum (E412), or the food additive HAMULSION.
The coolie method differs from the semi-hot method in that heat treatment is used only in the first stage by dissolving modified starches with water, this technology is used in the production of a product with a low or medium fat content, when it is necessary to thicken the mayonnaise in order to obtain the desired structure.
Based on the technologies and recipes described above for the production of mayonnaise, they can be used as a universal homogenizing module in which all components are mixed and homogenized together, as well as a professional vacuum homogenizing unit, or a set of equipment from several units for each stage of processing.